Book Review–Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World

From our earliest memories are told there are only genders, boys are certain way, girls are a certain way, and these differences can be explained with biology. Girls produce estrogen, which makes them emotional and gives them breasts when they grow up. Boys produce testosterone, which gives them lots of energy and muscles when they grow up. These sorts of message are so ubiquitous we never question them even as adults. We take it for grant that boys have a certain biology, girls have another, and that is what accounts for the differences we see in how women and men interact are treated in society. It is a kind of biological essentialist thinking many have used to justify sexism, cissesexism, heterosexism, and various other forms of oppression for millennia.

Alternatively, many feminists and others  have countered biological essentialism in asserting gender is socially constructed and making a distinction between gender and biological sex. In other words, gender is a social category while sex is a biological. From this standpoint these feminists were able to successfully debunk the myth that sexism is the inevitable result of unchangeable biology and assert gender oppression is the result of social forces and, therefore, changeable. However, such theories neglect to account for much of people’s lived, bodily experiences of gender.

Then there are those who assert the typical nature vs. nurture that often rages around sex and gender misses the mark. Humans are complicated social and biological beings, nature does not exist apart from nurture, and nurture does exist apart from nature. Any theory that ignores one or the other will be inadequate. To address these issues feminist and biologist Anne Fausto-Sterling in Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World debunks many of the myths about the scientific study of sex differences and offers possible alternative developmental theories on gender and sexual identities. This is all done in an interdisciplinary approach. Not only does Fausto-Sterling draw insights from biology, she also brings insights from other fields such as anthropology, sociology, and even history to the table as well.

The topics Fausto-Sterling covers range from the development of primary sex characteristics, intersex conditions and what they can and cannot tell us about gender, the development of gender identity in early childhood, and the theory of brain sex. In doing so she manages to address the misconception that sex as a biological category is strictly binary as well as the limitations of current research and theories on sex, gender, and the brain. Beyond issues of sex and gender Fausto-Sterling also addresses the history of sexual identity as a concept and its complex relationship to gender and gender expression.

With Fausto-Sterling’s interdisciplinary approach and easy-to understand style, I would recommend Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World to anyone who is new to the field biology or gender studies as well as to more experienced scholars. In a world where there is a divide between the sciences and humanities and misconceptions concerning gender and science run rampant, more interdisciplinary works like Fausto-Sterling addressing issues of science and gender are most welcome.

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Life Updates: Starting Graduate School and Experimenting with Gender Identity and Expression

About a week ago I started graduate school and it is already proving to be a hectic ride with full time Teacher Assistant responsibilities on top of my studies. I may not have as much time to blog as I did before, but I am certainly finding more opportunities to explore my gender identity and reinvent myself.

Just this weekend I went to a local Pride festival and, sensing I was having one of my more nonbinary days coming on, decided to experiment with my name and pronouns. When I picked up a name tag at one of the booths at the beginning of the festival, instead of writing my birth name and assigned pronouns like I usually would, I wrote Quincy and ze/hir/hirs. It felt strange at first, but I actually liked being called Quincy and using ze/hir/hirs pronouns in that particular setting surrounded by a whole host of my fellow nonbinary, genderqueer, and gender nonconforming siblings. It was awesome!

While I was there I also purchased my first bowtie. It was rainbow for the occasion and I wore all through the evening. When I returned home and finally saw myself in the mirror wearing my purple “This is What a Feminist Looks Like” t-shit, sporting rainbow face paint, and dawning a matching rainbow bow-tie I really understood for the first time what many in trans communities call gender euphoria. I felt empowered. I felt seen. I felt liberated. I felt happy in my expression in a way I hadn’t before that’s hard to describe. I felt all of this just because of a bowtie. It is amazing what such small changes in self-expression can do for a person psychologically. Now I can’t wait to see what comes next!

Book Review–Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us by Kate Bornstein

What’s your gender? When did you decide it? How much say do you have in your gender? Is there is anything about your gender or gender role that gets in your way? What would happen if you transgressed those roles? These are the sorts of questions Kate Bornstein asks as a self-described nonbinary transfeminine diesel femme dyke in hir part coming-of-age, part mind bending manifesto on gender and sexuality, Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us.

Published in 1994, Gender Outlaw was years ahead of its time. Now, a little over twenty years later, it is a recognized classic in the world of gender and queer theory that continues to expose new readers to a daring world of gender anarchy, rebellion, fluidity, and creativity; a world where gender ambiguity can and should be explored and everything everyone is supposed to just know about gender is brought into question. This world of gender outlaws comes alive through Bornstein’s fun, quirky, personal style with a combination of cultural criticism, autobiography, and dramatic writing.

As a cultural critic Bornstein tackles many common assumptions about sex, gender, and sexuality from the idea sex and gender are the same and gender and sexuality are interdependent traits. The main assertions Bornstein makes include gender is a cultural rather a cultural phenomenon distinct from biological sex and it does not determine sexual orientation. If it did what that make someone who is attracted to someone who is nonbinary?

Bornstein enhances hir cultural criticism with autobiographical content that gives readers a window (or, perhaps, a mirror) into the experiences of someone who does not live outside of the gender binary most of the population takes for granted. As someone who is neither a man or a woman, has experienced a gender transition from male to female, and is a trans elder Bornstein through means of autobiography manages to make hir theories speak to lived experience and come alive.

Also eaders who are interested in queer theater will appreciate the inclusion of Bornstein’s play, Hidden: A Gender, and its creative exploration of gender ambiguity and fluidity. By the end many readers and audiences will be left with new questions to examine and new gender possibilities to see.

While Gender Outlaw may not be for  the feint of heart, I would recommend it to anyone who wishes to gain a better understanding of gender and sexuality. Some, in the process of exploration, may find the issues of gender, sexuality, and desire Bornstein addresses speak to them more than they expected.

“Is it a Boy or a Girl?”: Birth and Gender in Twenty-First Century America and Beyond

It is the third word said about each of us and the answer to the first question ever asked about all of us: boy or girl. When a baby is born a doctor looks at their genitals. If the doctor sees a penis they declare, “Its a boy!” If the doctor does not see a penis they declare, “Its a girl!” Then a permanent “M” or “F” is inscribed on the infant’s birth certificate that will follow them for the rest of their life. The new arrival’s gender becomes government record before the child even knows what gender is let alone their place in it.

When new parents announce a birth the first question on everyone’s mind is, “Is it a boy or a girl?” Then the parents dress the newborn in either pink or blue to make sure there is no confusion over the appearance of the child’s genitals and, by extension, which gender within the binary they are raising the child to be for the rest of their life. If the parents inquired what their expected child’s reproductive anatomy looked like on a prenatal ultrasound they begin to gender the coming baby before the child even comes out of the womb. This early gendering sets into a motion an array of behaviors from buying certain toys, clothes, and decorations to choosing from only certain names, throwing “gender reveal” parties, and forming strong expectations regarding the infant’s future. These expectations are oftentimes so strong any break with them is met with pain, grief, distress, fear, anger, and violence.

For those of us who are intersex, being assigned a gender can be a source of great pain. When doctors cannot determine a baby’s sex immediately a medical emergency is set in motion. Surgeons are called in, endocrinologists are consulted, whole medical teams are formed, tests are administered, and the offending ambiguous body parts are surgically modified to fit into what the wider society has deemed to be standard for male or female. In most cases parents are not even consulted on these decisions and if they are consulted they are usually pressured into going along with normalizing procedures regardless of medical necessity or the serious life long consequences for the child, which often include sterility and lose of genital feeling. Not to mention all of the ethical issues surrounding the hormonal treatments many intersex people go through in adolescence in an effort to keep shoe horning them into the side of the gender binary to which they were assigned regardless of their actual sense of self.

Then there are those of us who are trans and do not identify with the gender we were assigned at birth. Such an early misidentification often leads to a great deal of distress and struggle in a society built on a strict binary. Trans people are more likely to attempt suicide, face violence, be denied health care, and experience poverty as a result of institutionalized cissexism and transphobia with trans women of color being particularly vulnerable. For many of us in the trans community our birth assigned genders are horrible mistakes we spend a lifetime correcting at great personal risk.

In many ways the different experiences of interphobia and transphobia intersect in how the medical gaze aggressively genders bodies from birth to death with no room for variation even in newborns. The surgeries many trans people elect to undergo in the process of affirming their gender identities had their start being performed on intersex infants and children who could not consent to such procedures. The same hormonal treatments trans people have to go through all kinds of hoops to gain access to are given without any question to intersex children. Both intersex and trans people find themselves having to educate medical professionals about their bodies in ways their non-intersex and cisgender counterparts never do. Those of us who live at the intersections of intersexuality and transness find our experiences are incoherent even within trans and intersex communities. All of this has at least some roots in deeply entrenched cultural beliefs that gender is easily recognizable at birth, binary, natural, biologically determined, and fixed. These are the cultural beliefs that make grown people think they know who a child is based on their genitalia and lead them to be fearful whenever faced with any challenge to those beliefs, even when said challenge comes in the form of a helpless baby.

This is the reality of birth and gender in twenty-first century America, where a simple “M” or “F” plays a role in determining the civil rights and privileges a person is afforded in important areas of life and being intersex or trans is met with oppression. Fortunately there are signs these practices are changing for the better. Transgender adults and children, in particular, are gaining visibility. Nonbinary identities are becoming better known to the general public. Intersex activists have made strides in raising awareness and working toward changing intersex health care. More parents are questioning and even out right resisting societal pressures to impose a particular gender on their children based solely on genitalia, especially when they are only infants.

I dream of a day when we put our babies in rainbow hats and are not so quick to assign gender to infants, or at least learn to take such assignments with a grain of salt. Besides a gender assignment at birth doesn’t yield all the information we are told it does even when it comes to biology. No one is testing the karyotypes of babies or conducting ultrasounds of their internal reproductive systems let alone thinking of the possibility the child may be trans. For all anyone knows in those first moments of life the healthy newborn everyone assumes has ovaries, a uterus, and XX chromosomes because the doctor said its a girl actually has internal testes and  XY chromosomes or the baby the doctor so confidently declared to be a boy due to the presence of a penis may one day disagree with that doctor’s assessment and grow up to be a woman.

So the next time someone you know has a baby maybe just ask if the baby is healthy rather than the classic, “Is it a boy or a girl?” Afterall you’re asking about a baby. No one knows who they are yet.

Introductions to Intersex Traits: What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?

This is the second in a series of posts in which I cover the basics of a particular intersex trait. For the purposes of this blog an intersex trait is defined as a bodily characteristic or set of bodily characteristic that have been determined to not be standard for male or female. This determination can be primarily chromosomal, hormonal, gonadal, and/or genital. Some examples include Turner syndrome, Congenital Androgen Hyperplasia, and cliormegaly. In this post I will focus on Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS).

AIS is an inherited intersex condition (expect for the occasional spontaneous mutation) that occurs in approximately 1 in 20,000 live births and results in partial to complete inability of the body’s cells to respond to androgens, which are the hormones commonly associated with male physiological development. Depending on the extent of the insensitivity, AIS can present in a variety of ways. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) in most cases results in a 46XY karyotype, undescended or partially descended testes, a short vagina without a cervix and no uterus or fallopian tubes. In some cases infants born with CAIS do not show obvious signs of the condition until puberty and are assigned female at birth without any question. In other cases the signs of the condition are obvious from birth. During puberty those with complete CAIS develop breasts as the body converts some testosterone into estrogen. However, they do not start a menstrual cycle without a uterus. Also, due to their insensitivity to testosterone, they grow little to no armpit and pubic and do not have any acne. Partial Androgen Insensitivity (PAIS) often results in an individual with a 46XY karyotype and ambiguous genitalia that can either be described as a large clitoris or a small penis. Here it is also important to note PAIS may actually be quite common and has been suggested to be the cause of infertility in many men whose genitals are typical in appearance.

Some of the most common medical responses to AIS involve medically unnecessary surgical interventions. These procedures involve removing internal testes and/or modifying genitals to appear more male or female. Along with these surgical interventions, there is also a history of parents and medical professionals refusing to disclose an AIS diagnosis to affected individuals. As well-intentioned as these responses may be they are actually problematic for many reasons, the most obvious being the fact these surgical interventions are mostly performed on infants and children who cannot consent. While it is true removal of internal testes is advisable in some instances due to cancer risks, cases of testicular cancer before puberty are extremely rare and there is no reason why such surgeries cannot be delayed until the individual is an adult with the ability to make an informed decision. As for genital surgeries, being born with genitals deemed to be ambiguous does not pose any physical dangers in and of itself. Unless the genitals in question have formed in such a way that bodily functions like urination are disrupted and the child’s life is threatened there is no medical reason to modify an infant’s genitals. Thus the reasons behind the surgeries performed on infants and children with AIS and other intersex conditions are purely cosmetic and often rooted in cisheteropartriarchy. A good example of this is the practice of lengthening the vaginas of infants and children with CAIS. The most commonly cited reason for vaginoplasty in these cases is to enable the female-assigned infant to one day have cis/heteronormative, penetrative sex as an adult. Under this line of reasoning there is absolutely no consideration of the various ways the individual’s gender and sexuality may develop over time let alone any concern for their future sexual pleasure should the procedure fail. After all she’s going to grow up to be a married woman and it’s all about her future husband’s pleasure, right? Once again such surgeries should not be imposed on anyone. Instead they should be offered later when the person is able to make an informed decision.

Beyond the physical and mental repercussions of nonconsensual surgeries there are the psychological consequences of secrecy regarding a diagnosis of AIS. While nondisclosure is done in the interest of sparing the individual unnecessary upset and confusion the actual lived experiences of those in the AIS community indicate such secrecy is actually harmful. Most people diagnosed with AIS who were not told of their condition have reported feelings of shame and confusion upon discovering they have AIS and advise full and complete disclosure from the beginning. A prominent example of this can be found in the narrative of Georgiann Davis, who tells of her experiences with AIS, nonconsensual childhood surgeries, and nondisclosure in Contesting Intersex: The Dubious Diagnosis as part of her investigation into intersexuality, intersex rights movements, and current diagnostic nomenclature. Along with her own story Davis also includes insights from interviews she conducted with intersex people on their experiences with medical terminology and practices.

Rather than approach AIS with secrecy and nonconsensual, medically unnecessary surgeries medical professionals, families, and individuals with AIS should work together for the well-being of those diagnosed with AIS in ways that respect their bodily autonomy and humanity. This means ending the imposition of medically unnecessary surgeries on infants and children and creating supportive environments free of shame, stigma, and secrecy. Above all individuals with AIS should take the lead in these efforts, challenging abuses of medical authority as necessary and supporting one another.

Access to support groups has also proven to be helpful for many individuals with AIS and their families, especially when first adjusting to a new diagnosis. An excellent example of such a group working today is the DSD-AIS Support Group. In this case DSD stands for Differences in Sex Development as opposed to the highly medicalized Disorders of Sex Development terminology that has been highly debated within the intersex community over the past decade. The group started out as a support group for women with AIS, but recent decades has branched out into a larger support group with a mission of, “Promoting support, education, and outreach to foster healthy outcomes for adults, youth, children, and families affected by Intersex/Differences of Sex Development.” This includes not only intersex women with AIS, but also intersex men, transgender, and nonbinary people with AIS and anyone else with an intersex trait and their families. Such support groups help individuals and families realize they are not alone, find resources, and exchange information. They can also be valuable educational spaces for medical professionals and others who wish to be allies to the intersex community.

Sources and Further Reading 

  1. http://www.isna.org/faq/conditions/ais
  2. http://www.isna.org/faq/conditions/pais
  3. https://www.childrens.com/specialties-services/specialty-centers-and-programs/gynecology/what-we-treat/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome
  4. http://aisdsd.org/
  5. Contesting Intersex: The Dubious Diagnosis Georgiann Davis

 

Book Review–Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to RuPaul by Leslie Feinberg

Why is there prejudice against trans and gender nonconforming people? When did it start? Where did it start? How did it start? These are questions Leslie Feinberg sets out to answer in Transgender Warriors: From Joan of Arc to RuPaul in a world that largely takes sexism, cissexism, heterosexism, transphobia, homophobia, and similar forms of institutional subjection for granted.

For the purposes of this analysis Feinberg utilizes the broadest definition of transgender possible in embracing the word as an umbrella term that covers anyone who transgresses gender lines. This includes groups as diverse as, “transsexuals, transgenders, transvestites, transgenderists, bidgenders, drag queen, drag kings, cross-dresser, masculine women, feminine men, intersexuals (people referred to in the past as “hermaphrodites”), androgynes, cross-genders, shape-shifters, passing women, passing men, gender-benders, gender-blenders, bearded women, and women bodybuilders who have crossed the line of what is considered socially acceptable for a female body.” Some of these words have gone largely out of use, others have been redefined, and entirely new words have been added since Transgender Warriors was written in 1996. Many of the aforementioned terms, including intersex, have even experienced contested belongings under any of kind trans umbrella whatsoever in recent decades. While these rapid language shifts may be confusing at times, these changes are actually a positive sign. The fact our language on gender is changing at all means people are actually talking about these issues and it is having an impact. Plus Feinberg’s technique of using the term transgender in the most inclusive possible can still be useful for emphasizing how the issues gender transgressors from drag queens to intersexuals face on a daily basis are interconnected. After all none of us are free until all of us are free.

Feinberg also makes a significant contribution to anti-imperialist struggles with a compelling examination the connections between the rise of class divided societies, patriarchy, and the rise of European imperialism. Coming from an explicitly anti-racist, Marxist position, Feinberg avoids analyzing cultures they do not belong to and instead focuses on the central role the emergence of class divided societies and European colonialism have had in the development of prejudice against trans people. An example of this can be found in how colonizers forced their binary gender system on native cultures who recognized more than two genders. In fact not only were gender variant people not oppressed, they were revered and played important roles in their communities. There is also evidence this was also the case in Europe at one time in the far distant past. However all of that changed in the transition from matrilineal, egalitarian, communal societies in which resources are shared to patrilineal, class divided societies in which the majority of the wealth is consolidated among small groups of powerful men through means of inheritance from fathers to sons, private land ownership, and exploitative rent collecting practices that serve to direct wealth away from the lower classes. Such a system also necessitated a rigid gender divide and eventually evolved into the forms of patriarchy, racism, classism, imperialism, homophobia, and transphobia that we know today. This new way of viewing history also implications for how live and seek change in the present.

In the interest of praxis Feinberg and connecting theory to lived experience Feinberg also makes connections between the historical research and her own lived experiences as a “anti-racist white, working class, secular Jewish, transgender, lesbian, female revolutionary communist.” These insights help to ground all of the historical theories covered in their meanings for the present context and brings the reader into Feinberg’s vision for a future free of oppression, a future in which everyone has access to their own history and is honored in their gender.

In the end I would recommend this well-crafted and well-researched book for anyone interested in trans history and social justice. In particular I would recommend to anyone who is gender transgressive and wrestling with the questions Feinberg poses. There is nothing as powerful as knowing one’s own history. Once any subjugated people realizes their marginalization is not an inevitable, ahistorical fact of life that has existed for all times and in all places, and can actually be changed in the present there is no going back.

Documentary Review–Gender Revolution: A Journey with Katie Couric

This past February National Geographic broadcasted a documentary on transgender identities entitled Gender Revolution with Katie Couric acting as a kind of guide. Intended for a wider audience the documentary covers the basics of sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexuality. Nonbinary and intersex issues also receive some air time, but the main focus remains on binary transgender people, theories on why they exist, and how “this whole transgender thing” is having a moment. While any positive transgender representation on television is certainly welcome, the documentary does oversimplify and essentialize gender. As a result the documentary falls short in its representations of the intersex community.

First the documentary could do a better of making the distinction between intersex and transgender. While there is some overlap between the intersex and transgender communities (of which I am an example), the majority of intersex people do not identity as trans and the majority of trans people are not intersex. Also the two communities face different, albeit interconnected,  issues. For example, transgender people are seeking their rights to bodily autonomy by means of access to often necessary hormonal and surgical treatments while intersex people are seeking their rights to bodily autonomy by means of ending nonconsensual, medically unnecessary surgeries on intersex infants and children. It is important these differences be acknowledged when intersex and trans issues are covered together. Gender Revolution does not adequately present these distinctions. This is mainly due to the fact that their main focus is on transgender and not on intersex issues.

Second are the interviews covering intersex narratives. These include interviews with the parents of a toddler who was diagnosed with androgenic hyperplasia at birth and an interview with an intersex trans man on his traumatic experience with early surgeries. For the most part these stories are handled well. The accompanying statistics and discussion of the failed “John/Joan case” help to further enlighten the audience on the issues intersex people face on a wider scale. Yet the coverage takes a problematic turn with the inclusion of a doctor who justifies his recommendation for medically unnecessary surgeries on intersex children, saying he would opt for surgery if the child was his and the number of people who have issues after such gender assignments are small anyway. Such statements go completely against the lived experiences of intersex people. Regardless of gender identity most intersex people who undergo nonconsensual, medically unnecessary surgeries in childhood suffer trauma as a result and have to deal with the life long physical consequences often in the forms of decreased sexual function, increased injections, and sterilization. In fact entire civil rights movements have been organized against the practice and are continuing to do so to this day. Seriously including a doctor who justifies nonconsensual surgeries on intersex infants and children in a documentary covering these issues is problematic at best even it can serve as an example of how many medical professionals have continued these contested practices into the present.

Now there are some things Gender Revolution does well. It manages to make the basics of trans issues from generation gaps within trans communities to transgender health care accessible for those who otherwise would never have learned about them. In this way the documentary does well as an educational tool, especially for the cis majority. Even with it’s problems I would still recommend it to those who are in the early stages of learning about what it means to be transgender means as it manages to impart the basics in a gentle and accessible manner through the familiar styles of Katie Couric. However it should be viewed critically and with caution, especially when it comes to the segments on intersexuality.

 

Introductions to Intersex Traits: What is Turner Syndrome?

This is the first in a series of posts in which I cover the basics of a particular intersex trait. For the purposes of this blog an intersex trait is defined as a bodily characteristic or set of bodily characteristics that have been determined to not be standard for male or female. This determination can be primarily chromosomal, hormonal, gonadal, and/or genital. Some examples include Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Congenital Androgen Hyperplasia, and cliormegaly. To begin I will focus on my own intersex trait, Turner syndrome.

Turner syndrome is a genetic intersex trait that affects approximately one in 2,000-2,5000 live female assigned births and most commonly manifests in a 45X karyotype instead of a typical 46XX karyotype or a typical 46XY karyotype. Other ways Turner syndrome can present itself include a partial absence of the second X chromosome, a partial absence in some cells and a complete absence in others, two X chromosomes in some cells and only one in others, and a 46XY/45X karyotype.

The vast majority of people born with Turner syndrome do not show any visible signs of having an intersex trait at birth, but this may not be the case for everyone. The most common symptoms of Turner syndrome are short stature and infertility due to lack of ovarian development. Beyond that Turner syndrome has such a wide range of possible manifestations any individual diagnosed with the condition will have only a handful of symptoms and no two individuals are the same. In other words, while the following descriptions of health issues associated with Turner syndrome may seem severe and intimidating it must be kept in mind this condition varies widely in severity from those who experience some of the more serious health issues mentioned here to those who experience so few symptoms they go through much of their lives undiagnosed.

While it is true most intersex traits do not present serious medical concerns in and of themselves, Turner syndrome is an example of an intersex trait that does present some potentially serious concerns. However these concerns at their core are not about gender/sex ambiguity per say and are actually about the health of organ systems that can be impacted when the second X chromosome is absent or partially absent. Before birth a prenatal ultrasound of a baby with Turner syndrome may show large fluid collection at the back of the neck or other abnormal fluid collections as well as heart and kidney abnormalities. At birth some with Turner syndrome may have certain physical features. These features include: wide or web-like neck, receding or small lower jaw, high, narrow roof of the mouth, low-set ears, low hair at the back of the neck, broad chest with widely spaced nipples, short finger and toes, arms that turn outward at the elbows, fingernails and toenails are narrow and turned upward, swelling of the hands and feet, short stature, and delayed growth.

Other potential symptoms of Turner syndrome that can present early in a person’s life include frequent ear infections, hearing loss, underactive thyroid, celiac disease, learning difficulties particularly in math and spacial reasoning, and a delay in growth. The most common diagnosis of these learning difficulties is nonverbal learning disorder. These issues are typically addressed with growth hormone replacement therapy, daily medications, medical monitoring, and appropriate accommodations in school if necessary along with care to address heart and kidney issues a person may be experiencing.

During adolescence the most common sign of Turner syndrome is a an absence of spontaneous puberty due to a lack of ovarian development, although there are some expections. In most cases this is addressed with estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy. With this treatment most go on to develop culturally feminine embodiments alongside their peers and the majority do feel comfortable living as women. However this is not the case for all of us.

Adults with Turner syndrome are more likely to encounter issues with osteoporosis and infertility. The former is addressed with continued hormone replacement therapy and the latter can be addressed through reproductive technologies or adoption for those who wish to have children. Issues with various organ systems beyond the aforementioned congenital heart and kidneys abnormalities can also arise. This makes continued appointments with an adult endocrinologist crucial.

Once again it is important to stress Turner syndrome has quite a wide range when it comes to symptoms and no individual will have all of the aforementioned symptoms and no two individuals are the same. For example, I showed none of the major signs of Turner syndrome at birth and was not diagnosed until the age twelve. Others possess visible signs of Turner syndrome from the beginning and as a consequence were diagnosed as infants. I was diagnosed only after it was clear I was leveling off on the growth early and was showing no signs of spontaneous puberty. Others do begin puberty spontaneously and are diagnosed as adults after other health issues point to Turner syndrome. Then there are also those who experience so few symptoms they go undiagnosed for the majority or even all of their lives. These are just a few examples of the wide range of ways Turner syndrome can affect different individuals.

Beyond the long list of potential physical symptoms it is also important to acknowledge diversity within the Turners community. We can be found in  all classes, races, ethnicities, cultures, regions, and just about every other social category one can imagine. This includes intellectual ability. Most of us have average to above intelligence and go on to have conventionally successful careers. We are your professors, school teachers, lawyers, doctors, nurses, day care providers, and much more. However it is also important to acknowledge some of us do not fit these conventional ideas of intelligence and success and there is nothing wrong with that either. No one should have to fit into society’s narrow vision of intelligence and success in order to live a meaningful life and be valued.

Finally, it is also important to recognize we come in all genders, gender expressions, and sexualities. While it is true most in the Turners community identify and present themselves as straight women, it is imperative gender and sexual diversity within the Turners community be acknowledged in medical care, media, and especially in support groups in order to ensure everyone receives the support they need regardless of gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality. In the end the best thing friends, family, and medical professionals can do for someone diagnosed with Turner syndrome is honor who they are absent chromosome and all and remember its about people, not chromosomes, hormones, or secondary sex characteristics.

Sources and Further Reading

  1. http://www.isna.org/faq/conditions/turner
  2. http://www.turnersyndrome.org/copy-of-about
  3. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/turner-syndrome/basics/symptoms/con-20032572
  4. https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/turner-syndrome/
  5. https://www.turnersyndromefoundation.org/aboutts.html
  6. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kelseigh-ingram/how-not-to-represent-turner-syndrome-in-media_b_7201490.html

Being Nonbinary and Intersex: My Identity at the Intersections of Sex and Gender

Recently I decided to write this post on my own identity at the intersections of sex and gender in an effort to improve intersex representation in any small way I can. Looking back on my journey so far I can’t help but think of how my life might have been different if I had been exposed to more diverse representations of intersex experiences with gender from the beginning. In writing about my own gender identity and how it intersects with my intersexuality I hope to help others in my intersex and nonbinary communities who are wrestling with similar questions concerning their own identities. Before delving into the details let me be clear this post is only a snap shot of my gender identity as it exists today. Anything I write here can change and that’s okay. Everyone has the right to experiment and to change their mind multiple times in the process. Going forward I reserve the right to be complex. Also I do not speak for all intersex people. Each person is different and I can only speak to my own personal experiences. Now with that out of the way let’s begin.

Some of the words I like to use for my gender identity include gender fluid, nonbinary, genderqueer, demiwoman, woman, and questioning. Sometimes I’ll even combine some of these words and describe myself as a nonbinary woman or genderqueer woman to indicate while I do sometimes identify as a woman I, as a gender fluid person, do not identify exclusively as a woman. What all of this means is my gender changes. Sometimes I experience these states one at a time and other times I experience some or all of them simultaneously. This can be pretty confusing, especially for those who are not familiar with nonbinary experiences. Even I will be the first to admit I’m still sorting it out, but I will do my best.

Some days I feel strongly as a woman and enjoy being seen as such. Yet there are also days when I feel somewhat or partially a woman (demiwoman), feel some frustration with being seen exclusively as a woman, and wonder if being called a woman, female, or a she really tells the whole story of my gender identity. I like to think of these experiences in terms of colors. For example, let’s say deep red represents the gender woman. That would make being a demiwoman a lighter shade of red or pink. Under this analogy it can be said these aspects of my gender identity range from deep red to pink.

Then there are also days when I like to describe myself as genderqueer. During these times I feel the gender binary does not adequately describe my gender identity and my gender actually exists outside of and beyond male and female. I use the term genderqueer to describe these aspects of my identity because I really like the political connotations and the broadness of genderqueer as an identity term offers when used to communicate an identity that queers gender by virtue of its existence outside of and/or beyond the gender binary.

Along with genderqueer I also like using the term nonbinary. This is mostly because it is more widely known than words like genderqueer and it also conveys a wide range of meanings. To be more specific I use the term nonbinary to describe those aspects of my gender identity that are neither of the binary genders or exist somewhere in between them, but always tilting toward the woman side. Plus there are times when my gender is confusing and difficult to define and for now nonbinary seems to be the best way to describe it. A few more specific terms I am currently exploring include gender neutral, neutrois, aporagender, multigender, and poly-genderflux, but these topics are for another post. Sufficed it to say I have a lot more questions and exploring ahead of me.

This fuller understanding of my gender identity has come after a long road of soul searching, questioning, and self reflection that will likely continue for the rest of my life. So far since coming out to myself as a gender fluid, genderqueer, nonbinary, intersex, Turners (demi)woman I have found my intersexuality does intersect with my gender identity in important ways and even overlaps with my gender identity. This is because I live in a cultural context in which sex is socially constructed as a gendered category and plays important roles in how gender is socially embodied. In this way being intersex has a significant affect on my gender identity and has come to play an indispensable role in how I understand, experience, and embody gender as an individual on an identity level and at a larger societal level.

How do you understand your gender? How did you come to that understanding? How do others perceive your gender? How do you feel about that perception? What words do you use to express and communicate your identity? Why have you chosen those words in particular? How does your gender intersect with other identities you hold?

 

Book Review–The ABCs of LGBT+ by Ash Hardell (Ashley Mardell)

Ever wished there was an accessible, go-to source of information with colorful illustrations you could use to explain your lesser known identity when coming out to family and friends? Ever wished there was a comprehensive source of basic LGBT+ terms you can turn to for learning about the new identities you’re hearing come up more and more frequently? Maybe a friend or family member just came out as an identity you’ve never heard of and you want to learn more about it in an effort to better support them. Well now there’s a source for that: The ABCs of LGBT+ by Ash Hardell (aka Ashley Mardell), a Youtuber who’s channel focuses on LGBT+ issues and education.

With the input of knowledgeable editors from various LGBT+ organizations and LGBT+ bloggers, this helpful guide covers a range of topics from spectrums to gender identities to romantic and sexual identities. This includes an entire introduction to sex/gender with an entire section devoted to intersex complete with direct input from an intersex person and spectrums to help illustrate the sex diversity of humanity beyond male and female. The fact intersex is given its own section entirely separate from the chapter on gender identities helps to address the common confusion between intersex and nonbinary identities. Such confusion is understandable given the common cultural tendency to think of gender exclusively through the lens of biological essentialism. However, the fact of the matter is gender and sex are separate, socially constructed categories and an intersex person’s biology as such does not dictate their gender identity. We can identify as any gender along the spectrum and beyond or even have no gender at all. Many of us identify as men and women in agreement with our birth assigned genders. Some of us contested our assigned genders and identify as transgender men and women or some form of nonbinary. As so many feminists have put it, “Biology is NOT destiny.” In this sense intersex is not a gender identity in the same way nonbinary, transgender, and cisgender are all gender identities. Rather intersex as an identity is based on biological sex in a social world instead of psychosocial gender.

Beyond the information on intersex the text contains a wealth of information on lesser known gender identities such as genderflux, maverique, pangender, and demigender complete with input from individuals who actually identify with these terms. There are very few texts that show case such an expansive, informative, and well researched list of gender identities all in one place and to make it even better the section on romantic and sexual identities is just as expansive and informative. Not only does it include lesser known identities like androsexual, omnisexual, and polysexual, there is also a high level of quality ace/aro representation throughout the chapter. Ace and aro are slang terms for asexual and aromantic, words that refer to those who experience little to no sexual and romantic attraction respectively. Often these identities are lost in the plus of LGBT+ even within gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender spaces. That is why the inclusion of these identities in books like The ABCs of LGBT+ is so important.

Now, to be fair, readers who are familiar with the more radical works of queer theorists like Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, and Dean Spade may find The ABCs of LGBT+ to be too basic and lacking in depth. However, as the title suggests, the text is intended to cover a wide range of basic information for a wide audience. In this way what the text lacks in depth it makes up for in breadth. Plus thanks to the efforts of Hardell and their contributors many readers who otherwise would never have heard of identities like demisexual, homoromantic, androgyne, and neutrois are now familiar with these often ignored identities and maybe have some new terms to help explain their own experiences. I know it has proven helpful in my own gender questioning and achieving my goal of becoming more knowledgeable on gender, sexual, and romantic identities beyond all of the binaries.

In the end as an activist, advocate, educator, and member of the queer community I would recommend this book as a guide to those who are questioning their identity as well as to those who wish to start educating themselves on LGBT+ topics and become better allies in the process. While the text only scratches the surface of LGBT+ identities, let alone queer politics, The ABCs of LGBT+ is effective in achieving its goals when it comes to educating readers on the basics of sex/gender, gender expression, sexuality, romantic attraction, and LGBT+ identities.